Transactions of the Twelfth Session of the AR State Medical Society (1887)

Transactions of the State Medical Society of Arkansas (Little Rock: Press Printing Company, 1887).

Annual Address of the President, James A. Dibrell, Sr. (Van Buren)

“What amazing wonders have not modern scientific investigations accomplished? What a grand display of dazzling brilliants have not been dug up hitherto dark, unfathomed recesses of nature, where Science sat gloomy and enshrouded in her lonely solitude? What a blazing light is chemistry! Old things are done away and the radiant new sheds its lustre over the world, bringing grand results from worlds of microscopic observations teeming with interest and benefit to mankind. True pathology follows in the wake of anatomic histology, and physiology determines with accuracy the therapeusis of medical agents in their different modes of actions on the different tissues. The study of the physiological effects of medicine is one of the great discoveries of the day. [Goes on about surgery for awhile] What has modern medicine not accomplished? It has in some countries, notably England, increased human longevity nearly five per cent. Thus the time is not far distant when man shall live to the period assigned by the Creator, or until the organisms wear out and fail by long work. The same spirit which led medical men to sacrifice their lives in services to the poor, has led them to study enthusiastically and publish the minutes of their study to the world in the interests of humanity. [Discusses diseases traced to sewer gas, dirty water, “educational over-pressure,” contact with disease, and vaccination]” (18-19)


Report of Committee on the Practice of Medicine, W.P. Hart (Washington County)

Divides history of medicine into three periods. The first was spiritual/superstitious, the second focused on medical intervention, and the third — the current — is one in which “the causes of disease are being sought for and determined.” (23) “This is a field of inquiry in which investigation has barely passed the outer boundary, but when it shall have been thoroughly explored by the hosts of busy scientific workers engaged in its exploration, then indeed will medicine rightly claim and be entitled to a place among the definite sciences.”
Seeking scientific basis for medical profession, wanting it “place[d] among the definite sciences.”
“When the day dawns that we not only observe the symptoms and effects of disease, but know and understand the causes that produce them… then indeed will ours be a noble calling and the upright and conscientious doctor a being, in reality, but a little lower than the angels.”

“Bacteriology has been worked and pushed with industry and energy, for all it is worth, we may say, and promises brilliant results in the near future, but its status at the present time is unsettled.” (31) What causes what? Does the disease cause the bacillus or does the bacillus cause the disease?

“The chief bearings and effects of these studies and investigations will be felt upon hygienic, sanitary, and preventative medicine, and suggest that the doctor of tomorrow will be called upon, not only to cure disease, but to prevent disease.”


Report on State Medicine, Thomas W. Hurley (Bentonville)

Mostly complaining about lack of government support for the State Medical Board, which was legislated into existence in 1881 but not supported after 1883. Compares AR to European countries — how are we different? Are the people incapable/uninterested , or is the medical profession the problem?

“Dr. Jno. D. Jordan, of Eureka Springs, says: ‘I think the greatest drawback to State medicine in Arkansas is the want of co-operation among the medical men of the state.” (80)

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Juan H. Wright, Analytical Chemist

E. H. S. Bailey, “Vol VII. Special Report on Mineral Waters,” in The University Geological Survey of Kansas (Topeka: W. Y. Morgan, 1902).

Analysis of Arlington Springs, KS, no. 1-3, divided into ions and hypothetically combined (277-279)

Analysis of Wetmore mineral springs, KS, divided into ions and hypothetically combined (300)

Chapter VI: Methods of Analysis, of Calculation, and of Stating Results – discusses how tests should be run, but it appears that some analyses “are by other chemists than those of the survey.” So we don’t get a sense of how Wright may have conducted his, although it points to his being pretty progressive by breaking it down between ions and hypothetical combinations.

Alfred N. Cook & C. F. Eberly, “The Sioux City Water Supply,” in The Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of the Sciences for 1901, vol. IX (Des Moines: B. Murphy, 1902): 90-101.

Made an analysis of The Artesian Well in Sioux City, IA, in May of 1883 (97-98), which is markedly different from an analysis made of it a year later by Prof. Thomas E. Pope of the Iowa Agricultural College.

Transactions of the National Eclectic Medical Association, for the Years 1882-83, vol. X, ed. Alexander Wilder (Orange: Chronicle Book and Job Printing Office, 1883).

Member of the Eclectic Medical Society of Missouri; inducted into the National Eclectic Medical Association at their 1882-83 meeting. Assigned to present on malaria at the next annual meeting.

Albert C. Peale, Lists and Analyses of the Mineral Springs of the United States in Bulletin of the USGS no. 32 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1886).

Analyzed springs in Texas (Pate Sour Well at Sulpher Springs & Weaver Well) and Kansas (Henek’s Mineral Springs) in 1882.

Juan H. Wright, M. D., and Albert Merrell, M. D. “Monumental Evidence – For Strength, Purity, and Wholesomeness, the Royal Baking Powder Stands Unsurpassed!” Daily Evening Bulletin (San Francisco, California) 28 Dec. 1882.
Same article reprinted here: The News and Observer (Raleigh, North Carolina), [Saturday], [January 06, 1883]; Issue 93.
Same again: St. Louis Globe-Democrat (St. Louis, Missouri), Tuesday, June 10, 1884
And again: Rocky Mountain News (Denver, Colorado), Monday, July 14, 1884
And again: St. Louis Globe-Democrat (St. Louis, Missouri), Tuesday, July 22, 1884
And again: The Milwaukee Sentinel (Milwaukee, Wisconsin), Tuesday, July 22, 1884
And again: Daily Evening Bulletin (San Francisco, California), Wednesday, August 20, 1884
And again: Southwestern Christian Advocate (New Orleans, Louisiana), Thursday, August 28, 1884
Variation here: Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper (New York, New York), Saturday, January 06, 1883; pg. 336
And here: The Galveston Daily News (Houston, Texas), Friday, January 12, 1883
And here: The Cleveland Herald (Cleveland, Ohio), Thursday, June 26, 1884; pg. 8

Testing “Royal Baking Powder” for purity — it’s pure! Wright was obviously alright using his skills in analytical chemistry for advertising purposes.

“Pure Apple Vinegar Vs. Sulphnric Vinegar.” St. Louis Globe-Democrat [St. Louis, Missouri] 8 Apr. 1883.

Printed correspondence between Dr. Wright and Ira Bouttel & Co., who produced apple vinegar. Wright received barrels and tested their purity, concluding that they were composed of “pure fruit and entirely free from any injurious adulterant.”

“Ecleciic Graduates,” St. Louis Globe-Democrat (St. Louis, Missouri), [Friday], [June 01, 1883]; pg. 6

Listed as a faculty member at the “American Medical College.” Seems to have been a colleague of John W. Thrailkill.

“Yesterday’s Death List,”St. Louis Globe-Democrat (St. Louis, Missouri), Tuesday, October 09, 1883.

Died October 8, 1883 at the City Hospital of “softening of the brain” at 35 years old.

 

Transactions of 7th Meeting of AR State Medical Society (1882)

Transactions of the State Medical Society of Arkansas at its Seventh Annual Session (Little Rock: Kellogg Printing Company, 1882).

List of Members of the Arkansas State Medical Society – total = 197, 2 from ES

Doctors who were practicing in ES:
J. O. Ducker — physician in Eureka Springs, AR — graduate of Jefferson Medical College, PA
M. Harrison — physician in Eureka Springs, AR — graduate of Louisville Medical College, KY (where Daniel Drake lectured for awhile!)

Breakdown of training by state:
NE Coast –
Maryland (8); New York (8); Pennsylvania (29); Maine (2)

SE Coast –
South Carolina (4); Virginia (3); Florida (1)

South –
Louisiana (20); Georgia (6)

Upper Midwest –
Michigan (2); Ohio (10); Iowa (3); Kentucky (38)

Lower Midwest –
Missouri (24); Arkansas (3); Tennessee (29)

Canada (1)

2 from L. I. H. Medical College, can’t figure out where that was located


Address on the Practice of Medicine, E. R. Duvall, Chairman of the Committee 

…by reason, treatment is more concise, more methodical, more scientific, results more satisfactory. All organs are systematically interrogated — in this manner the reflex and other manifestations, so often puzzling alike to patient and and medical attendant, are accounted for, and their significations placed in their proper relationship.” (50)

“To dose, dose, and dose again, originally significant of the erudition of our calling, and viewed with admiration by confrere and the laity, is now, through the agencies and by the influence of a progressive advancement all along the line, the least of the test by which fitness for responsible trust is to be determined.” (51)

Uses statistics in pro-Smallpox vaccine argument; discussion of English and German critiques of American vaccination practices, which proves they were reading literature from across the Atlantic? (52)


Report by committee appointed to investigate reforming (making more uniform, more rigorous) medical education; report by committee appointed to investigate and attempt to change medical legislation

Both pieces stress a need to monopolize & standardize medicine for the benefit of the people, who are being cheated by charlatans, quacks, and improperly trained doctors.


Piece on using blood to diagnose illness — the “Salisbury method,” from Dr. J. H. Salisbury (OH)

Advocates skilled and knowledgable use of microscopy to observe blood “corpuscules.” Pretty detailed account of what blood does when you add various concentrations of different substances.


Report on Bilious Fever by G. M. D. Cantrell of Hope, AR

Discusses weather, elevation of areas particularly affected by the disease
“…Klebs and Tomasi Crudeli, by their investigations, have discovered in the atmosphere of the Potine marshes peculiar rod-like bodies, which they have called bacillus milariae, and which, by inoculation, they claim will produce paroxysms of intermittent fever.” (96)


“A Plea for Some Neglected Branches in Medicine” by George C. Hartt, Little Rock, AR

Argument for wider, broader training for doctors — “languages, mathematics, philosophy, and the sciences”

“All must acknowledge” that the acquirement of “some” languages — “especially French and German” — “cannot fail to afford both profit and pleasure, enabling him to understand the fresh utterances of foreign masters in their native tongue, and also many words and phrases which these languages are constantly contributing to medicine and to science.” (122)

Advocates knowledge of “geology,” so that physicians can be consulted in healthful locations for building stuff. Wonder why he doesn’t mention health resort therapeutics here? 😦

Argues that botany isn’t considered a real science because it is associated with mysticism (“astrology and alchymy,” “Thomsonian, or steam system, and botanic system…”) (127-128)

References Cuvier

 

Foucault: The Birth of the Clinic

Foucault’s is a history (if we can call it that) of discourse — of the way people talked about the body, particularly in its diseased state, and the way they’ve understood the doctor and the patient himself in relation to the disease.

« …commenter, c’est admettre par définition un excès du signifie sur le signifiant, un reste nécessairement non formule de la pensée que le langage a laisse dans l’ombre, résidu qui en est l’essence elle-même, poussée hors de son secret; mais commenter suppose aussi que ce non-parle dort dans la parole, et que, par une surabondance propre au signifiant, on peut en l’interrogeant faire parler un contenu qui n’était pas explicitement signifie. »

To comment on something is to assume that the ultimate meaning of what you’re getting at is more important than what you’re saying — that there’s something more, something left in the shadows of your words. I think Foucault is laying the foundations for the kind of work he will do in the rest of the book here, asserting that if we can read through the way that doctors talk about the body, the patient, the disease, and themselves in relation to it, we can understand at a deeper, more complex level how they saw and understood these concepts.

This is a history of reading between the lines, of seeing what was not explicitly stated and looking underneath for larger take-aways. I’m unsure how I feel about this, because it doesn’t seem to be based in anything tangible. It feels farfetched and difficult to substantiate, problems that Foucault does resolve, in my mind, in the remainder of the text.

I think it has the potential to be very powerful, though, and I love that Foucault states he is not arguing that this epistemic change in the late 18th century was doctors/scientists suddenly waking up and seeing what had really been there all along — rather, that a new kind of science (by which I mean what was considered scientific) emerged, and through its lenses, scientists and doctors saw different things. They were looking for different things.This way of looking at things, I think, is something a lot of historians of science don’t like. It’s the ultimate critique to the progress narrative and to positivism, to viewing the history of science, technology, and medicine as the story of how scientists eventually “got it right.”

Espaces et Classes

Primary (disease), secondary (disease + individual), tertiary (disease + individual + health infrastructure, or « l’ensemble des gestes par lesquels la maladie, dans une société, est cernée, médicalement investie, isolée, repartie dans des régions privilégiées et closes, ou distribuée a travers des milieux de guérison, aménages pour être favorables »). Big changes took place in the tertiary.

Une Conscience Politique

Begins by talking about epidemics, exploring how they were understood and why the concept of contagion was largely unimportant.

« On a discute beaucoup et longuement, et maintenant encore, pour savoir si les médecins du 18ieme siècle en avaient saisi la caractère contagieux, et s’ils avaient pose le problème de l’agent de leur transmission. Oiseuse question… »

Details growing « conscience collective » of medicine, as observations around France were being collectivized and disseminated through medical infrastructure.

« Le lieu où se forme le savoir, ce n’est plus ce jardin pathologique où Dieu avait distribue les espèces, c’est une conscience médicale généralisée, diffuse dans l’espace et dans le temps, ouverte et mobile, liée à chaque existence individuelle, mais bien à la vie collective de la nation, toujours éveillée sur le domaine indéfini où le mal trahit, sous ses aspects divers, sa grande forme massive. »

Discusses change in the doctor’s role being reinstituting an individual, idiosyncratic “normal” to, in the 19th century onwards, adhering to a common, popular normal as the standard for health.

Importance of the concept of healing the state — health as something the entire nation should be concerned about.

Le  Champ Libre

Account of the debates surround the reformation of medical education during the French Revolution;

Hospitals should be abolished; they shouldn’t be needed in the ideal state, because everyone will be healthy. They end up becoming the new “natural” place for disease, though, replacing the family.

Arguments over whether education/medical field should be regulated.

The Old Age of the Clinic

“Before it became a corpus of knowledge, the clinic was a universal relationship of mankind with itself; the age of absolute happiness for medicine. And the decline began when writing and secrecy were introduced, that is, the concentration of this knowledge in a privileged group, and the dissociation of the immediate relationship, which had neither obstacle nor limits between Gaze and Speech: what was known was no longer communicated to others but put to practical use once it had passed through esotericism of knowledge.”

Theory vs. seeing — to what extent do our theories dictate what we see? (“When Hippocrates had reduced medicine to a system, observation was abandoned and philosophy was introduced into medicine.”)

I’ve felt this way about learning history a lot. If I read so much theory, it’s going to change the way I do history. It’s going to change the way I read sources, the way that I understand them, and the way that I relate them to contemporaneous and modern-day situations and ideas. Is this less pure? Or merely substituting someone else’s bias for my own?

Details how the clinic is different from a hospital, one being that, while in a hospital, “one is dealing with individuals who might suffer from one disease or another,” in the clinic, “one is dealing with diseases that happen to be afflicting this or that patient: what is present is the disease itself, in the body that is appropriate to it, which is not that of the patient, but that of its truth.”

The Lesson of the Hospitals

Clinical hospitals became a space where “truth teaches itself… offers itself to the gaze of both the experienced observer and the naive apprentice; for both there is only one language…”

They made possible “the immediate communication of teaching within the concrete field of experience… effac[ing] dogmatic language as an essential stage in the transmission of truth.” (68)

Interesting, although I’d still argue there was a lot going on with medical language at this time. Someone didn’t just walk in and know how to talk about the body. The body still wasn’t speaking for itself.

“What makes medicine, thus understood, a corpus of knowledge of use to all citizens is its immediate relationship with nature; instead of being, like the old Faculty, the locus of an esoteric, bookish corpus of knowledge, the new school would be ‘the temple of nature’; there one would learn not what the old masters thought they knew, but that form of truth open to all that is manifested in everyday practice…” (70)

Signs and Cases

Begins by discussing similarities and differences between natural history and this new brand of medicine; continuing conversation distinguishing classificatory medicine and clinical medicine. Instead of just classifying everything by their differences and similarities, clinical medicine embodied “a gaze… not bound by the narrow grid of structure (form, arrangement, number, size), but that could and should grasp colors, variations, tiny anomalies… it must make it possible to outline chance sand risks; it was calculating.” (89)

Discusses signs and symptoms — actually kind of defines something for once — and the changing amount of space between what was a signifier and what was signified. Symptoms, instead of being a sign of something, become themselves part of the whole of the disease.

Fascinating discussion of the rising importance of statistics in medicine (WISH THERE WAS MORE SUBSTANTIAL EVIDENCE), which “gave the clinical field a new structure in which the individual in question was not so much a sick person as the endlessly reproducible pathological fact to be found in all patients suffering in a similar way; in which the plurality of observations was no longer simply a contradiction or confirmation, but a progressive, theoretically endless convergence…” (97) “The only normative observer is the totality of observers…’Several observers never see the same fact in an identical way, unless nature has really presented it to them in the same way.’” (102)

Seeing and Knowing

Difference between experimentation and observation

“The observing gaze manifests its virtues only in a double silence: the relative silence of theories, imaginings, and whatever serves as an obstacle to the sensible immediate; and the absolute silence of all language that is anterior to that of the visible.” (108)

The setting of the hospital is important, permitting “pathological events to be reduced to the homogenous; the hospital domain is no doubt not pure transparency to truth, but the refraction that is proper to make possible, through its constancy, the analysis of truth.” (110)

“…by saying what one sees, one integrates it spontaneously into knowledge…” (114)

This is a really important point for Foucault, I think. He’s writing about discourse as a way of knowing. How we put into language what we see is how we construct knowledge.

Long-winded analogy between disease and languages:

“Disease, like the word, is deprived of being, but, like the word, it is endowed with a configuration.” (119) – nominalistic (denies the existence of universals and abstract objects, but affirms the existence of general or abstract terms and predicates)

Open Up a Few Corpses

Argues that the histories of anatomy that posit dissection was not common until the mid-19th century are false, constructed to explain why pathological anatomy (the correlation of lesions with symptoms) wasn’t a thing earlier.

Historical narratives constructed as “retrospective justifications.”

Foucault: Madness and Civilization

This book read a lot like Orientalism to me. It is a history of The Other and how it has been defined in relation to what is normal, what is reasonable. In Said’s work, the opposing ideas were Western and Oriental. In Foucault’s, they are reason and folly. I think the two overlap a lot, however; the Oriental was often associated with emotion, spiritual ways of understanding the world, and unreason. Equally parallel in both works is how one of the opposing binaries — the Oriental and the Mad — is made to embody all that is undesirable and the operative results of being understood that way. I understand why this book would probably be important for anyone in colonial and post-colonial studies to read.

It’s a very deep history that definitely falls firmly in the camp of constructionism. Like The Birth of the Clinic, Madness & Civilization is looking at how the discourse (knowledge-base) around something informs how it is viewed and dealt with in society.

Posits that madness was handled via confinement starting the 17th century, “the moment when madness was perceived on the social horizon of poverty, of incapacity for work, of inability to integrate with the group; the moment when madness began to rank among the problems of the city.”  (64)

“The new meanings assigned to poverty, the importance given to the obligation to work, and all the ethical values that are linked to labor, ultimately determined the experience of madness and inflected its course.” (64)

Interesting for my research is the change in conceptions of madness Foucault outlines in “The Great Fear,” summarized well in the following excerpt:

“In the second half of the eighteenth century, madness was no longer recognized in what brings man closer to an immemorial fall or an indefinitely present animality; it was, on the contrary, situated in those distances man takes in regard to himself, to his world, to all that is offered by the immediacy of nature; madness became possible in the milieu where man’s relations with his feelings, with time, with others, are altered; madness was possible because of everything which, in man’s life and development, is a break with the immediate.” (220)

This reminds me of neurasthenia and makes sense given contemporaneous therapeutic recommendations — a return to nature, to the natural state of man. Modernity, it was believed, was overexciting and led to mental problems.

Transactions of 4th Meeting of AR State Medical Society (1879)

Transactions of the State Medical Society of Arkansas at its Fourth Annual Session (Little Rock: Blocher & Mitchell, 1879).

Much discussion about standardizing stuff for the purpose of professional cohesion (should by-laws of county medical societies all be the same?).

List of transactions from medical societies received by the librarian; NJ, VA, MA, KS, IO, MN, NC, CO, RI, PA, FL, WI, GA, CA, ME, NH, DC, MI (Board of Health), Rochester NY (health officer), WI (Board of Health), & GA (Board of Health). (19)

Expresses anxieties about the lack of government legislation concerning the health of AR’s population, specifically the absence of a legal designation between licensed doctor and quack/charlatan. Because states around have enacted these types of laws, many quacks flock to AR. (34)

“Our state… occupying, as it does, one of the most favored localities of any of the states, so far as climate and natural advantages…” is still behind most of her surrounding “sister-states.”
Many rivers make the state well-drained, and the NW portion is elevated, having “all the advantages that “…any upland and mountainous country can possess; the finest springs and small streams… They have here the health generally found in the most elevated and mountainous district of the earth.”(38)

“None of the scientific communications were included in the minutes, for the simple reason that there was not sufficient money in the hands of the Treasurer to pay for the publication.” (41) Dammit.


Dr. Lincithum, of the committee on State Board of Health

Seems very disillusioned with the lack of success the profession has had in getting any sort of medical legislation passed. Blames the infighting and lack of unity within the profession.

“State medicine in Arkansas as a result [of inter-professional conflict], is at a low ebb with the medical profession abroad; looked upon with distrust, as narrow minded, and losing sight of the public good, in our individual efforts at aggrandizement.” (45)


Report of the Committee on Vital Statistics

A mild winter never quite cleansed the air of the summer’s miasmas, which may have contributed to the outbreak.

Discussion of quarantine measures taken against Memphis and New Orleans in the 1878 Yellow Fever outbreak. No state Board of Health meant that individual city health boards had to coordinate — which they did.

Relatively detailed tables of deaths in Little Rock; divided up by cause of death, gender, race (colored and white), and age.

“It will also be manifest by an examination of the table that there was an increased mortality among the colored people in the Winter and Spring months. This is attributed to their careless exposure of person in all conditions of weather, and their idle, thriftless habits in not providing themselves prior to inclement winter months.” (55) “The number of still-born reported among the colored population is mainly due to the ignorance of their midwifes [sic].”


Clinical Study in Etiology of Pneumonia by J. S. Shibley, M.D. (Roseville, Logan County)

Good example of a changing emphasis on preventative over heroic medicine. Author takes all of the cases of pneumonia he and another practitioner have seen in the past six years and breaks them down by sex, age, race, occupation, shelter, clothing, food, month, previous health, and result (57-58).

Mentions climate a lot, asserting that pneumonia is a much bigger problem in the south.

Therapeutic nihilism: “I doubt not that much of the mortality of Pneumonia, as I have seen it, has been due to the influence which this false theory still exerts over the minds of physicians and patients, leading the former to adopt spoliative [to take away, ie., purgatives, bloodletting, etc.!] measures with a view of combatting the inflammatory process, and preventing the latter from taking food for fear of increasing it. May we not hope that the time is close at hand, when physicians will cast away their theories and conform their reasoning to facts, and thus place the treatment of the sick on a rational and scientific basis?” (61-62)

Asserts that it may arise in combination with malaria. How to prevent it? “…the removal or avoidance of its causes.” (62)


“A Few Suggestion on Preventative Medicine and the Germ Theory of the Causation of Disease,” by E. Bentley, M.D., United States Army

“The earth calls aloud for preventative medicine…”(69)

Makes reference to “the progressive men of our profession in Europe,” Pasteur, Lemar, Lister (antiseptic treatment), J. Burden Sanderson,

“In the light of present discoveries, no one can doubt that in the chemistry and microscopy of the air and water, will be found the development of marvelous agencies that sweep with appalling fury among all classes and races of men… This field is so wide and inviting, that I invoke the special attention of the faculty of the State everywhere, to spend each leisure moment in the investigation of that branch of preventative medicine that pertains to air and water.” (71)


List of Members of State Medical Society of Arkansas

Breakdown of training by state:
NE Coast –
Maryland (10); New York (11); Pennsylvania (27); Maine (2)

SE Coast –
South Carolina (5); Virginia (6); Florida (1)

South –
Louisiana (30); Georgia (5)

Upper Midwest –
Michigan (4); Ohio (9); Iowa (2); Indiana (1); Kentucky (49)

Lower Midwest –
Missouri (23); Tennessee (25)

Canada (1)
L. I. H. Medical College (2)

Total = 213 members/none practicing in Carroll County, Eureka Springs

Strategy for AR Medical Journals

Dr. Crowther suggested that I flesh out the connection between the science being referenced in ES and larger trends in medicine. I think the connection can be found in the documents produced by the Arkansas Medical Society, which record what the discourse within the medical profession of Arkansas concerned itself with.

Produce bibliography of publications

Keywords — chemistry, chemist, air, climate, climatology, pure, American Climatological Association, analytical chemistry, analysis, mineral waters, Eureka Springs

Get general idea of what was being discussed:

  • Were organized doctors in Arkansas making reference to work being done in Britain, Germany, or France?
  • Were they discussing whether chemistry or climatology were sister-sciences? Did they believe these sciences could add to medical knowledge? Should they be consulted in therapeutics?

Were doctors prominent in Eureka participating in the society?

  • L. J. Kalklosch
  • John W. Thrailkill
  • W. W. Johnston